Xaar joins the Si-MEMS printhead club

It’s been a few years since Xaar announced the development of a silicon-MEMS thin film piezo printhead to form the basis of their P4 (platform 4) product range. So has it been worth the wait? On 2 June, 2016 we got first details at the product launch and it certainly looks both impressive and competitive. Here I’ll explain why.

But first let me just explain what silicon MEMS (abbreviated to Si-MEMS) actually means and why it’s being increasingly seen as the future for piezo printheads. The use of silicon as a base for developing powerful computer chips, memory and other electronic devices has revolutionised industry and our lives. These devices are made by the diffusion and coating of materials in layers at extremely high resolutions. MEMS technology is making structures in and on silicon using similar techniques. This involves etching as well as depositing materials. Over the past decade or so etching techniques have become much better, faster and cheaper, making the mass production of MEMS devices viable. The technology is used for a very wide range of applications, and one of those is in ink jet printheads. Thermal or bubble jet heads can be considered MEMS devices in that physical processing is often required in the manufacturing process, and Memjet takes the process much further by building CMOS circuitry with the actuator structure on top.

But the other term often heard in conjunction with Si-MEMS is thin film piezo, and they go hand in hand. Si-MEMS allows a printhead manufacturer to make actuator chambers and ink passageways at a finer scale than previous techniques. The material is much stiffer too, so that the walls between chambers can be made thinner. Unfortunately as the chamber dimensions are reduced, you need to make a thinner and more flexible piezo actuator layer to flex into the chamber to displace a drop from the nozzle. Until recently ink jet devices used bulk piezo, made from wafers of the material. Thick film deposition of piezo has also been used, forming layers around 20 microns thick. For the use in Si-MEMS devices much thinner coatings are used, with piezo layers 2-5 microns thick on top of flexible diaphragm layers only half that.

For Xaar, moving to Si-MEMS offers many benefits. Perhaps the biggest one is it will finally allow them to work with aqueous inks which are becoming increasingly important for commercial and packaging printing, and are of course essential for textile printing. It will also operate at much higher linear speeds than possible with Xaar’s previous designs.

Xaar 5601 GS3p0 printhead
The new printhead consists of 4 chips mounted in a Z-shaped module. Each module can print over roughly a 4.5 inch (115 mm) width at 1,200 dpi and at 120 metres per minute. Alternately the printhead can be supplied with 2 colour inks and print at 600 dpi. Inks can be either aqueous or solvent-based and the printhead can be operated in binary or greyscale mode with drop sizes ranging from 3-21 pl.

The actuators are thin film piezo configured in roof mode, with nozzles at a pitch of 300 per inch. That equates to a pitch between nozzles of 85 microns. Each row of nozzles is offset, with each pair at 1/600th of an inch and the pairs offset by 1,200 of an inch. This allow single or 2 colour printing.

Xaar 5601Although later to the game than some of their competitors, Xaar has taken the opportunity to use the latest technology internally. For instance the connection technology used is state of the art. They have also focussed on producing a design that is easy to implement. The head has alignment features to allow easy replacement, with the final nozzle alignment taking place in software. As the head covers a wide width there are fewer ink and electrical connections reducing costs and complexity. The Z shape enables printheads to be assembled in wide arrays with stitching also taken care of by software. The heads are also reasonably narrow in width, so stacking heads together for a full colour system will be compact – Xaar claims only 200 mm for 4 colours.

The printhead has been designed with a high drop velocity – a figure of 9 metres per second was quoted at the press conference but I understand higher velocities are possible. This should allow wider spacing between printhead and substrates while maintaining print quality.

Drop placement accuracy will also be high – Ramon Borrell, CTO of Xaar, stated they were achieving 3 sigma within 5 micron at 1 mm spacing.

One of the design considerations with a high density piezo printhead is thermal management. The heat from the actuators heats the ink, and if the temperature of the ink varies then so does its viscosity and therefore the drop volume. So Xaar has incorporated its high flow rate technology which will equalise and stabilise the temperature across the printhead, and which will also keep ink fresh at the nozzles and rapidly remove bubbles by passing ink right behind the nozzles.

AcuDrp Technology
A new feature incorporated into the printhead design compensates for manufacturing variations between nozzles. It allows the printhead to be calibrated to equalise drop volume and velocity across each printhead and all of the printheads in an array. It claims to do this dynamically, so perhaps can also be used to reduce crosstalk and maximise printhead life.

Partnership with GIS
Xaar also announced a partnership with Global Inkjet Systems who will supply drive electronics and ink supply systems for the 5601. Xaar’s overall aim is to minimise the total cost of ownership by reducing development and integration costs and time to market.

Product introduction
Xaar aims to be manufacturing the printhead at the end of 2016 with the first product – a textile press – appearing mid-2017. A version capable of handling UV-curable inks is due in September this year, and some manufacturers will be adopting the printhead for 3D printing with a major vendor launch in 2017. Xaar is out-sourcing the silicon MEMS manufacturing, focussing on final module assembly and testing, so won’t be investing in expensive silicon fab facilities.

So, will the Xaar 5601 printhead family succeed? It does seem to tick all the right boxes for high quality ink jet printing at speed. In terms of linear speed and print resolution it is up there with the Fujifilm Dimatix Samba and Kyocera printheads, while being easier to integrate into a process. Landa Digital claimed 300 metres/minute with Samba printheads but like others this is achieved by doubling up the printheads, which Xaar could also do. HP is running web presses at 120 metres in ‘quality’ mode, but their claimed 2,400 nozzles per inch is actually 1,200 dpi with 2 nozzles in line to get 4 grey levels.

A modest yet significant product announcement at Drupa 2016

You expect at the Drupa trade show, currently running at Düsseldorf, a certain amount of showmanship. Demos with lots of loud music, Xerox has Ministry of Sound shows 3 times a day, and the show everyone wants to hear is of course from Benny Landa about Nanography.

imageBut tucked away at the end of Hall 8a is a prototype machine easily missed. Not just the machine but the significance of it too. The machine is the Canon Voyager, demonstrated every hour with the usual display of print samples under glass close by. Canon is not really keeping it quiet, it is a public display and they have a page advertisement for it in every issue of the Drupa Daily. But that’s pretty modest compared to others.

So what’s so special about it? Well, at Drupa 2012 Landa Digital showed their presses for the first time. Instead of ink jetting the image directly onto the substrate, they printed onto a flexible belt, dried the image, and then transferred the image to the substrate. The advantage of using intermediate transfer is that the process becomes almost substrate independent, one of the concerns of direct printing. Of course there is a major problem to be overcome, as you need the intermediate transfer surface to be non-wetting at the transfer stage, yet wetting when you jet the image.

I track all of the ink jet patent applications published, and can tell you that Canon probably has the most relating to intermediate transfer, with others with IP in this area such as Xerox, Ricoh, Seiko Epson and Fuji Xerox.

By now you should have worked out that the significance of the Canon Voyager is that it also uses liquid intermediate transfer, this time using a drum rather than a belt. It’s a B2+ press capable of 3,000 sheets per hour. New fixed array bubble jet printheads print 7 colours using pigment-based inks onto a drum covered with the intermediate transfer blanket. The image is then dried and transferred to the final substrate.

Little information has been given about Canon’s intentions for the press. It is planned for a launch in 2018 and will be aimed at high-end commercial printing applications demanding the highest print quality.

Canon already has experience of producing high quality from fixed ink jet arrays in the DreamLabo photofinishing machine, although in that case printing is directly onto coated photo paper.

So with a confident Landa Digital announcing the building of factories ready for volume production of the Nanographic presses, and now Canon also planning intermediate transfer, what will we see in 3 years time at Drupa 2019. My prediction is we will see ink jet presses, both direct and intermediate transfer, vying side by side for customers. If anyone thinks ink jet is close to the limits yet they are wrong.

Mist, missing nozzles and condensation – Challenges for high speed ink jet printing

Mike Willis, Managing Director of Pivotal Resources, explains that it’s a lot more than just printheads and inks

It’s easy to focus on inks and printheads when thinking about ink jet presses as they are essential components and go a long way to determining performance and applications. When I bump into contacts next week at Drupa 2016 we’ll be swapping notes on what printheads are being used or who’s ink. This tends to mask all the other vital sub-systems and issues that need to be optimised to achieve a reliable and stable press.

Those who know me, or who have attended the Ink Jet academy course that I jointly present with Dr Alan Hudd, know that I’ve been a great advocate of taking ink supply and nozzle maintenance seriously during the concept phase of developing a new product. They are certainly key components of desk-top products, and their careful design and optimisation can lead to reliable industrial presses too.

The use of ink jet for high-speed printing applications – commercial and packaging printing in particular – has required the development of page-wide fixed array printheads. Printing at high-speed with ten’s of thousands of nozzles leads to some other problems too, and I’m going to explore three of them in this blog.

Are you wondering how I know about these problems? They don’t get mentioned in public most of the time. Do I hang around in bars close to manufacturers R&D labs hoping to overhear discussions at the end of a hard day’s development? No, nothing that exciting. I read patent applications.

Ink misting
Printhead manufacturers and ink formulators try and optimise the jetting process between them, often not an easy partnership as they almost always work for different companies. But no matter how elegant the drop formation process might appear, using an optical drop monitoring system, there will be microscopic drop fragments created at the point where the tail of the drop breaks away from the nozzle. These very small, often sub-micron fragments of ink, have little momentum and drift with the prevailing air currents around the printhead. In high-speed printing the substrate passes underneath the printheads, drawing air along with it. The turbulence this creates distributes the ink mist throughout the rest of the machine.

Aqueous inks are the choice for many of the new presses under development. But these require extensive dryers within the press. At very high speeds it may be necessary to heat the web before, or immediately after, printing. Driving off the water carrier can improve the print quality by preventing excessive bleed and absorption into the substrate. But it also leads to the creation of large amounts of water vapour. Just like your kitchen windows when you are cooking, this water vapour will condense on anywhere cold enough; like the printheads and mountings within the press. And as it builds up it will drip onto the substrate and ruin the beautiful printing.

Drop detection and missing/misaligned nozzle correction
When you have tens of thousands of nozzles, you have the problem that the failure of just one of them could conceivably affect the high print quality demanded by these applications. There are some great technologies for hiding any artefact caused by a missing or misaligned nozzle – for instance by increasing the dot size each side of the missing nozzle, or substituting a different colour. But you can only play these tricks if you know which nozzles are causing the problems. Technology is therefore being developed to either check the drops in flight, or the printed image, to look for these defects. Taking into account the number of nozzles involved and the print speed this is not a trivial issue to overcome.

So when you see the impressive new ink jet presses at Drupa 2016 think of the difficulties that the engineers have had to tackle. Some of problems are not very glamorous, but they all require satisfactory solutions to provide reliable systems.

Drupa 2016 – no surprises? What have the ink jet engineers been up to?

Mike Willis, Managing Director of Pivotal Resources believes this year’s show will be evolution not revolution


So far pretty much all of the pre-announcements of digital press technology at this year’s Drupa trade show are similar to those made in 2012. So what have the industry suppliers been doing for the past 4 years?

Back in 2012 many ‘launches’ were, in reality, technology demonstrations. There is nothing new about this; I’ve seen the same thing since the first Drupa I attended in the 1980’s. At the last show the big story was Landa Digital’s Nanography. A few print samples were shown, demonstrating potential for the process but far from saleable print quality. This year Landa is back with what should be machines close to being ready for sale.

The same goes for Xeikon, who demonstrated their liquid toner press in 2012. This year we are promised a full colour version. And there are many other examples of this: demonstration at one Drupa, commercialisation at the next.

So why does it take 4 years from showing a working prototype to having a machine ready for launch? What on earth do engineers get up to for 4 years? Well, for a start there may be many changes made to the machines over that time in response to 3 factors:

Feedback from customers
At the last Drupa, potential customers will have made comments on what they liked or didn’t like about a press. This feedback may provoke extensive revision of a machine. As an example, we know from Landa Digital that the large touch screen controls on the side of the presses were not liked, and the panel is now more conventional, and at the delivery end of the machines.

Process development
Building an ink jet press is relatively straightforward. You just source ink jet printheads and ink and most of the job is done! Well, there are still a few people who think that way, but most have learnt that the reality is very different. There are a wide range of areas requiring careful design and development, such as head mounting and alignment, nozzle maintenance, ink supply, data paths, drying or curing… the list is long. If the process involves fundamental new technology, like the Landa Nanoinks and intermediate transfer belts, they don’t develop themselves either, but require considerable work. There are many other issues that are special or critical for high-speed single pass printing too, but I’m saving that for a later blog.

Changes to the design
As demonstrations for a Drupa show come closer and closer corners are cut to get everything working. After the show a major ‘post mortem’ takes place. Are we using the best technology now? With hindsight what would we do differently? What changes should we make to meet the manufacturing cost budget? Now we are aware of the competition what changes should be made to remain competitive?

I’d like to point out that the engineers don’t get 4 straight years to do these redesigns and developments. Ideally it’s much better to get to the next Drupa having been through beta testing at selected customer sites and to have made further revisions in the light of operational experience. So allow perhaps a year for this and we are down to 3 years.

So a development engineer’s job is pretty tough. And it’s going to get worse. The next Drupa is 3 years away, not 4. So if you meet an ink jet development engineer at the upcoming Drupa be sympathetic!

What’s the next big thing in ink jet? Ink.

I started out in the ink jet industry in 1982. That seems a long time ago now, and it was almost the beginning of what has become the ink jet revolution. For many years things moved quite slowly. Ink jet technology was something of a curiosity, demonstrated by printing onto butterfly wings or egg yolks. You could do anything you wanted, providing you could develop your own ink jet printhead, ink, control electronics, ink system and everything else!

Fast forward to the past decade. Now everyone had heard of ink jet thanks to its success for desktop printing in full colour and at high quality. It would be great to use for manufacturing processes, printing on demand, no changeover time, no need to print large quantities of stock, all the things a factory manager dreamt of. Even better, a whole infrastructure has built up. Printhead manufacturers can supply printheads, ink suppliers have inks to print onto a wide range of substrates, data paths and drive electronics are available off the shelf, and more recently ink supplies too. The company I jointly founded – IMI Europe – helped build the industrial ink jet printing industry over the past 15 years by offering a wide range of educational courses and conferences.

So now we are in a world where the industry is relatively mature, right? Well, not really. Compared to the conventional printing industry for commercial printing, textiles, industrial and functional printing – the use of print in all aspects of manufacturing – ink jet is still a fairly immature technology. I’m sure to some people that may come as a surprise. Ink jet currently seems invincible on the applications it can address.

But the reality is it still has some way to go for widespread adoption. Yes, it is already part of many industries and applications, but to go further many improvements still have to be made.

Certainly there are improvements to be made with printhead technology, but in my mind the most progress in the future will be in ink jet ink technology. The breadth of applications for ink jet will increase, and so will the demand for specialised and dedicated ink jet inks and the materials incorporated within them.

Maybe in 10 years time it won’t be ink jet printhead manufacturers who have the hold on the industry, to which ink jet inks are designed. Maybe the situation will have been turned on its head, and the end users and ink companies will determine what’s needed and what the capabilities of the printhead will need to be.

Obviously this presents a great opportunity. There are currently only 10’s of ink jet ink companies in the world so it’s unlikely that the capacity to develop all the requirements for the future is already in place. The scope for innovation is endless.

20 years ago in Cambridge, where I’m based, many small pharmaceutical companies were established. Few people believed these small research teams could possibly compete with the established giants. But they were wrong. The small teams were innovative, fast moving and captured the attention of investors who foresaw a potentially large upside. In fact the giants began to change the way they worked and began emulating the smaller teams! And bought them up of course!

I now spend most of my working hours reviewing ink jet patents. At present it’s still the big guys – HP, Epson, Fujifilm, Agfa and co – who dominate the ink jet ink patent innovations. But will that change? Compared to printhead development and manufacturing, the development and capital investment is relatively small. What’s needed are the skills and the understanding of what’s going on with ink jet, why it’s special, what are the limitations, and what are the problems that need solving.

From the patents we can see that many challenges are being addressed. We’ve seen the launch of hybrid UV inks to allow much thinner ink films to be deposited for packaging and other applications. For many applications aqueous inks are preferred and developments are underway to formulate inks for non-porous surfaces. The packaging and décor industries need metallic and “effect” inks to supplement CMYK, and white inks too.

We are seeing the first commercialisation of liquid ink intermediate transfer with the Landa Digital machines and many other companies are developing similar technology for commercial, packaging and industrial applications. These processes require innovative chemistry to overcome the fundamental problem of initially being wetting to the transfer substrate, but then forming a non-wetting image for transfer to the substrate. The advances being made in ink design and development are accelerating, and there will be much more to come.

So, the future is bright, the future is ink!

Mike Willis
Managing Director
Pivotal Resources Ltd

Out with the old, in with the new – the end of an era

Mike Willis on an emotional handover after 17 years at IMI Europe

I remember watching a TV programme many years ago where an amateur writer was caught drafting his Desert Island Disc selections before he had even finished his first novel. Strange as it might seem, negotiations had only just begun with my chosen successor to take over IMI Europe, yet the first thing I began considering was how and when it should be announced to the world.

And so last Wednesday 2nd December, 2015 I stood up at the start of the final IMI Europe Ink Jet Conference that I would organise, made a few jokes, explained that it was time for me to hand over the baton to someone younger, and introduced the new Managing Director and owner of IMI Europe, Dr Tim Phillips.

IMG_3964I’m sure the audience noticed it was an emotional moment for me. The conference was held in Amsterdam, in exactly the same hotel where IMI Europe began 17 years ago! This was actually not by design; when seeking a suitable venue the Novotel was the only one with the right space, at the right price and at the right time. It felt like coming home, travelling a full circle. I had previously taken the Ink Jet Conference south, due to the dark, damp weather in Northern Europe late in the year. I was reminded of this whilst struggling with a suitcase against the wind on the walk from the train station to the hotel when I arrived.

IMI Europe formed out of IMI Inc., with friend and business partner Al Keene. I convinced him we should set up in Europe to exploit a different kind of ink jet industry. In the 1990’s the US was heavily into desktop and wide format printing, with many local manufacturers. In Europe there were clusters of ink jet expertise, including around my home base of Cambridge, UK. I’d been working within the ink jet industry, as I still do, and had been one of the founders of Xaar.

The future in my mind was with non-office applications of ink jet, and quickly we established new events covering Digital Commercial and Packaging Printing (1999) and Digital Industrial and Decorative Printing (2001), years ahead of their time. The first Industrial Ink Jet Technology Showcase was held in 2002, where suppliers to the industry could present their products and services to the emerging development community. The first Ink Jet Summer School was held in Cambridge in 1999, attracting delegates from around the world. Together with Dr Alan Hudd we began the Ink Jet Academy course which has been a phenomenal success, with over 3,000 having attended over 17 years.

We’re pretty sure that these events have helped inspire, educate and train the emerging industrial applications for ink jet, particularly in Europe. We’ve found that some delegates came from companies we had previously never heard of, yet 18 months later revolutionary new products would be launched.

But the flagship event of IMI Europe has always been the annual European Ink Jet Conference, and therefore this had to be my finale. And what a conference it was this year! Registrations kept coming in right up until the last minute. We had zero no-shows; everyone came. The speaker programme was so strong that 85% of the audience were still there in the last couple of hours of the final morning. The level of speakers was outstanding, with several CEOs and Executives presenting. Delegate after delegate told me that all of the presentations were top quality, not a poor one amongst them. The feedback we received on our evaluations forms confirmed this. The atmosphere was superb!

IMG_6113So why the handover? Well over the past few years I have been increasingly frustrated. I still have the enthusiasm to do more, to launch new events in new locations around the world. My brilliant team are also keen to take the company forward to new heights. But I’m getting old and tired, and also have another company to manage – Pivotal Resources.

I also now regret, like many others I’m sure, that I spent my most productive years growing a business but neglected spending enough time with my children as they grew up. I’m not going to make the same mistake with my grandchildren.

So that’s why it was time to find someone younger with the right skills and expertise to continue with IMI Europe. But you haven’t seen the last of me. I’ll still be around as Chairman of IMI Europe for at least the next few years, and will be continuing with the Ink Jet Academy course and Pivotal Resources.

Over the past two decades with IMI Europe I’ve made so many friends within the industry, which has built up into a close-knit community, and I’ve had a fantastic time. I wish you all continued success and hope you will continue your loyalty with Tim in the future.

Tom Ashley 1941-2015

Tom Ashley, Pivotal Resources USA
Tom Ashley, Pivotal Resources USA

I am sorry to announce that my friend and business associate Tom Ashley passed away on Saturday 22nd August, 2015 after suffering a major stroke 3 days before. He never regained consciousness.

Tom was one of the pioneers of the digital printing industry, beginning his long career at IBM in 1967 to work on the R&D of copiers and printers. He managed groups developing photoreceptors, inks, and toners for IBM’s first copier, laser printer, ink jet printer and thermal transfer printer. The IBM 6640 ink jet printer of the 1970’s was a milestone in office printing, despite costing $23,000 with an output speed of 1 page per minute.

Following IBM Tom was Manager of Technology at Control Data Corporation heading up its laser and ink jet printer programmes.

From 1984 to 2001, Tom worked in market research and consulting for Dataquest, BIS Strategic Decisions, and CAP Ventures, all consulting firms specialising in digital printing and imaging. There, he directed groups researching the office peripherals, large format printing, industrial printing, and hard copy supplies markets.

In 2001 he moved back to his home state of Kentucky, and began working as an independent consultant. The following year he founded Pivotal Resources USA and has worked as an associate on many projects for clients worldwide. He was widely known as an industry expert, and had spoken at more than 100 industry conferences.

As well as his interest in digital printing, Tom was an enthusiastic radio ‘ham’. In fact in 1957 aged 16 he was featured in the press as having listened to the radio pulses from the first satellite in space, the Russian-launched Sputnik. His interest in science was no doubt founded in his father’s work on the Manhattan project in the 1940’s, where he was one of the first to work on uranium enrichment at Oak Ridge Laboratories.

As a person Tom had a perceptive and shrewd attitude to technology and never took anyone else’s views or forecasts at face value. He maintained a sharp and curious mind, and was working until the end leaving an unfinished document open on his computer.

Sadly, the digital printing industry has lost one of its founders.

Tom Ashley
13 April 1941 – 22 August 2015

The silent revolution

It’s a technology that has been in your home and office for the past 20 years, and in the past decade it has begun transforming industries. Isn’t it about time you considered it for your manufacturing business?

Mike Willis, Managing Director, IMI Europe

There’s a technology that has been commercialised since the 1970’s, yet it has only been in the last decade that it has begun to transform manufacturing. Ever wondered how Amazon has such an enormous range of books for immediate shipment, or if not immediate in 1-2 days? Or, if you go to a Zara store the latest fashions are available in your size? Perhaps you’ve recently sourced ceramic tiles for a remodelled bathroom and been surprised at the range available – even convincing wood and metal effects.

How can they do this? Amazon can maintain low stock levels yet offer almost instant fulfilment with digital print. Many other industries can do the same using digital industrial printing.
How can they do this?
Amazon can maintain low stock levels yet offer almost instant fulfilment with digital print. Many other industries can do the same using digital industrial printing.

The book production, fashion and the ceramic tile industries have been transformed by using ink jet technology. That’s in addition to point of sale and in-store graphics for stores, billboards and building wraps. Ink jet is proving a very versatile way of digitally applying images to substrates. The next candidate likely to be transformed by ink jet is the décor and product manufacturing industries. Yet despite having such a major impact, industrial ink jet printing and decoration gets hardly any of the exposure that 3D printing gets, hence the ‘silent’ revolution. Newspapers print stories about the latest 3D printing application at least weekly, but when did you last read about the impact of digital printing in manufacturing?

The basic principles are the same as in that humble ink jet printer you use at home. However, today’s commercially available ink jet printheads can use a range of inks based on water, solvents, or UV-curable, allowing printing to take place on virtually any substrate. Ink jet is non-contact, so non-flat surfaces can be printed. There is no impact or pressure, so even very thin and delicate surfaces can be used. Laminate flooring, worktops, panels, wall coverings and furnishing textiles are considered to be the next affected by the ink jet revolution. Even the automotive and aerospace industries are getting in on the act, promising a whole new level of customisation in the future.

So what does ink jet do for the customers who purchase products?
It helps streamline distribution channels by allowing responsive manufacturing rather than produce for stock, allowing a faster time to market and reduced waste and inventory. Therefore customers can decide what they want to buy, and get it, rather than select from what’s in stock. Manufacturers can streamline production and significantly reduce costs. Ink jet decoration can be implemented on-line.

What has enabled this revolution is the availability of the necessary components. A wide range of both industrial-grade ink jet printheads and different ink types are available. Data control and printhead drive cards allow printing on webs, sheets and shapes. Ink supply systems are available to maintain the ink in optimum condition. Drying and curing systems specific to ink jet allow control at a wide range of production speeds, and integration services and inspection systems are available too.

So, whether you manufacture toothbrushes, kitchen appliances, footwear, power tools, cars, trains or aircraft, this new way of applying ink to surfaces is having a great impact, even though there is ‘no impact’!

To find out more about ink jet technology, how it is transforming industries and how it can be implemented, join us for the Industrial Ink Jet Technology Showcase taking place in Munich, German 24-25 June, 2015. Prior to this is the Ink Jet Summer School 22-23 June offering three courses related to ink jet.

Where did 25 years go?

Mike Willis, Managing Director of IMI Europe, reminisces about the beginnings of a leading ink jet printhead manufacturer

You’d think that, like the day you get married, your children are born or your cat dies, you’d remember the day you set up a company. But the problem is founding a company can be a long drawn out process. When do you count from? The day official documents were signed? The day you got funding? Opened bank accounts? Moved into the premises? Probably joining the payroll is what most employees would remember.

But sometime in early May, as best as I can remember, 25 years ago, four of us with two investors and the help of Cambridge Consultants formed a yet to be named company. The name came a month or so later.  We couldn’t come up with a name internally and so the lead investor got a marketing consultancy to come up with one. Xaar.  None of us liked it. The concept was that it sounded like something Russian – perestroika was big news at the time – and it was spelt like it was from California. We learned to like it more when told that without a name there would be no bank accounts and therefore no pay at the end of the month. And we joked that it was short for ‘biz-xaar’.

The Xaar team one year from start. from the left David Paton 3rd, Steve Temple 5th, Mike Willis 7th and Mark Shepherd 11th.
The Xaar team one year from start. from the left David Paton 3rd, Steve Temple 6th, Mike Willis 7th and Mark Shepherd 11th.

Xaar was set up to exploit a new ink jet printhead technology developed at Cambridge Consultants in 1986. Two of the inventors joined Xaar, David Paton (sadly no longer with us) and Steve Temple, who for 20 years served as Technical Director. Mark Shepherd had joined the team in the early days of the CCL development as an experienced process technician and quickly rose through the ranks of the new company. I’d project managed the development at CCL, leaving the others to concentrate on the technology. Once an MD had been appointed to Xaar I adopted a business development role and sold the first licence to Japanese company Brother.

You have to remember that ink jet was still in its infancy at the time. In 1990 we had trouble convincing manufacturers of impact dot matrix printers that ink jet would soon wipe them out. I’d also been ridiculed by an expert from one of the investors for predicting that the sub-$1,000 laser printer was just a few years away!

Mark Shepherd blows out the candle on Xaar's 1st birthday
Mark Shepherd blows out the candle on Xaar’s 1st birthday

The focus was very much on office printing as that’s where the action seemed to be. The same was true of other developers of ink jet printheads. US company Spectra, now known as Dimatix and owned by Fujifilm, was the main competitor. They were developing a colour printer for Apple, but then had to downsize when the contract was pulled.

It seemed to me that the way forward for Xaar was to licence the technology for mass markets, like the office, and to develop and manufacture printheads for graphics and industrial applications. Sadly the investors didn’t agree with my view, nor many of my other ideas, disagreements leading to my leaving within 18 months of the start. For some reason I still remember that day very clearly!

As with many changes in life, with hindsight the move was positive. I’ve spent the last 25 years advising most of the major players in the business around the world, and many smaller ones too.  Through IMI Europe I’ve been organising conferences and courses for 15 years, contributing to the leading position that European companies have in commercialising industrial ink jet. Amazingly our Ink Jet Academy course, run in partnership with Dr Alan Hudd, has had over 3,000 attend from over 800 companies. And Xaar has managed without me just fine, becoming one of the leading printhead manufacturers and a major local employer.

 The next Ink Jet Academy course will be held at the IMI Europe Ink Jet Summer School 2015, Munich June 22-23. You can also get the latest information on industrial ink jet printing at the upcoming IMI Europe Industrial Ink Jet Technology Showcase, Munich June 24-25, 2015. Details on both at www.imieurope.com.

Ink Jet Academy course – over 2,500 attendees and still counting

Some of the available OEM piezo printheads open to developers
Some of the available OEM piezo printheads open to developers

by Mike Willis, Managing Director, Pivotal Resources, Cambridge, UK

Aimed at providing a foundation of basic knowledge of ink jet technology for those new to the industry, and an update for those already working in this field, the Ink Jet Academy has been running for over 15 years.

So how did the Ink Jet Academy begin? Well, around 1997 if I remember correctly, Dr Alan Hudd and I were sitting in Amsterdam airport waiting for our delayed flight back to the UK.  We were of course sitting in the bar, and while enjoying our beers we reflected on the IMI Ink Jet Conference we had just attended.  We’d both been surprised when close to the end of 2 days of presentations someone from the audience had asked a speaker “what do you mean by piezo?”  We realised that not everyone who attended the conference was an ink jet expert.  In fact some were very new to ink jet and were attending the conference to find out all about it.

But the conference wasn’t an ideal way to find out about ink jet at all!  It consisted of a series of invited speakers to talk about the state of the art of ink jet.  Anyone new to the industry would get a very distorted view of what was going on.

So we concluded that what was needed was a course describing the fundamentals of ink jet, and an overview of all aspects of the technology.  I could cover the printhead and hardware topics, and Alan the ink and materials.  But what should we call it?  “Something catchy, like ‘Ink Jet Academy” said Alan, “but not that”.  I disagreed, it was perfect, capturing what we were setting out to do, and it was memorable.  But would it be successful?  We estimated that maybe 200 might attend over 5 years.

Proposing the idea to Al Keene, President of IMI, he suggested we try the course prior to his US Ink Jet Conference the following January in Orlando, Florida.  Amazingly 70 signed up for it, around half the numbers attending the conference!

Over the years the course has evolved as we have adapted it to reflect the change of focus of the delegates.  At the beginning around half of the course was devoted to desktop technology and coated media, these days it is almost exclusively industrial piezo ink jet and applications.

So how many are there working worldwide in the ink jet industry?  Amazingly we have had well over 2,500 attend the course, and will probably exceed 3,000 by 2015.  Delegates from just about every company in the industry have attended.  We have run courses in the US and Europe twice a year, we’ve been to India 3 times, and early in 2014 ran a course in Hong Kong.  And this December we are delighted to be running our course in Tokyo for the first time.  Over the years 30 Japanese have travelled to the US and Europe for the course, so this will offer a greater opportunity to attend.

What’s the point of attending if you already know about ink jet? Well, we have given in-house courses to some of the major names in the industry, who make $B a year from ink jet.  But their staff only know their own technology.  They learn about their competitors and other applications from the course.   Some companies are expert in their particular part of the ink jet industry but don’t have the full view.  And new employees can get an overview of the field they are entering.

So no matter how much you already know, we are sure you will learn something from the Ink Jet Academy.  Full details of the Tokyo course, December 3-4, 2014 can be found at http://www.digitalprintjapan.com.  The course is also running in Barcelona November 4-5, 2014 http://www.imieurope.com and in the US in early 2015.

3D printing – the only way is up

It was back in the early 1990’s at an IMI Ink Jet Conference in Cambridge, Massachusetts that a couple of young students talked to me about work they were doing at MIT Labs. This involved jetting an adhesive in a pattern onto a powder bed. After each layer had been imaged a further layer of powder was spread across the bed and imaged, and so on. Eventually you could blow away the loose powder, revealing a 3D object. I wished I’d accepted the invitation to take a look at it now!

The MIT 3D printing process, ink jetting adhesive on to a powder
The MIT 3D printing process, ink jetting adhesive on to a powder

Since that time 3D printing has changed from being a novelty process to a major industry. It is still very much in its infancy in terms of the scale of production and the exploration of what it can do. It has become an easy source for media articles, with the most outlandish claims at times. The frenzy has grown so much that I read a story last year in a 3D printing magazine entitled “How to hype your 3D technology”! Many expect it to lead to a new industrial revolution, transforming the way we develop and manufacture products, in the same way that manufacturing changed from hand production to machines 250 years ago.

There are many different 3D printing technologies, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. At present no one technology can satisfy a broad range of requirements, so normally you select the best process for a specific application. In many cases the restriction concerns the materials that can be used. For instance some just work with a particular polymer, others with metals, rubbers or ceramics.

Autodesk aims to become the 3D printing industries ‘Android’

Many of the fundamental patents for the different processes have now lapsed, which has led to a broadening of the industry. On May 14, 2014 Autodesk, the leader in 3D design and modelling software, announced plans to launch its own 3D printer. But perhaps even more significantly it will allow others to make their own versions of the printer or they can use Autodesk’s Spark software to drive their own designs. This business model is expected to drive up the numbers of 3D printers, just like Google have grown the smartphone market using their Android operating system.

Estimates vary as to how big 3D printing currently is, but it is at least $2B and growing fast. Therefore a lot of companies are exploring how to engage with this fast growing industry. There are a great number of opportunities, from building new processes to developing new materials.

So how do you begin to explore the wide range of process, materials and capabilities 3D ink jet printing has to offer? One way is to attend the 3D Ink Jet Printing course, part of IMI Europe’s Summer School, June 16-20 in Milan. Dr Alan Hudd of Alchemie Technology, an expert in ink jet functional materials, will describe the processes, applications and markets for 3D printing, and then explore in depth the functional materials that can be used. The course concludes by describing the processes and issues relating to new 3D printing applications.

Ink jet textile printing – a recent development?

When was the first ink jet textile printer developed?  2002? 1995? 1988?  Actually, a lot earlier than that.  In the early 1970’s a small consultancy in Cambridge, UK was asked by the large chemical group ICI to come up with a new way of printing textiles – digitally. They adopted continuous ink jet technology and built a prototype that printed 2 colours over a 10 inch wide web of fabric.  And it worked (just).

Patent GB 1,354,890 “Improvements in or relating to pattern printing apparatus” filed 26 August, 1970. The inventor was David Paton of Cambridge Consultants who went on to co-invent what became the Xaar technology.
Patent GB 1,354,890 “Improvements in or relating to pattern printing apparatus” filed 26 August, 1970. The inventor was David Paton of Cambridge Consultants who went on to co-invent what became the Xaar technology.

But it was just too far ahead of its time and the project was abandoned. The developers at Cambridge Consultants bought the IP, and the project leader span off an ink jet business soon after.  He called it Domino Printing Sciences.  Cambridge Consultants went on to pioneer many other ink jet technologies and spin-offs, such as Xaar and Inca Digital. The textile printer may not have made it to commercialisation, but the project spawned a large cluster of ink jet activity in Cambridge.

Perhaps the first commercial use of ink jet textile printing was by the Japanese company Seiren, who in 1989 began building several hundred scanning head printers using piezo drop on demand printheads for in-house production. By 2000 Seiren had gross annual sales of over $100M, supplying automotive upholstery, swimwear and apparel.

Today, after a couple of false starts, the ink jet textile industry is thriving. According to SPGPrints, the digital textile market for 2013 was 310 million m2, and is growing at 24% per year. Yet it is still only around 1% of the total printed textile market of 30 billion m2. However, in 4 years time it is forecast to more than double to 733 million m2.

Ink jet textile printing offers rapid fulfilment of new designs, essential for the fast moving fashion industry, but also a key part of the professional interior design market too. The bulk of the medium and high volume ink jet textile machinery manufacturers are based in Europe, with some of the large players located in Northern Italy. So when IMI Europe decided to hold their annual Ink Jet Summer School in Milan this year it was natural to propose an Ink Jet Textile Printing course.

Running 18-19 June 2014, three experts within the industry will give delegates a thorough overview of the ink jet textile industry. Thomas Poetz, of 3T Consulting will describe the markets and applications for ink jet textiles, the drivers for growth, the main players, and how the industry is likely to evolve in the next few years. Dr Simon Daplyn, Ink Sales Manager at Xennia Technology will describe the various ink chemistries that can be used, and the pre and post processing required. Finally, Paolo Torricella, Product Manager at Reggiani Macchine, just up the road in nearby Bergamo, will teach delegates about building machines, the issues of selecting printheads, architecture options such as scanning and single pass printing, and the system design issues of implementing ink jet in production environments.

Anyone with an interest in this increasingly important ink jet application is welcome, and full details can be found at www.imieurope.com.

A new hybrid UV ink jet ink technology

Another interesting presentation at the 21st European Ink Jet conference run by IMI Europe was from FUJIFILM Speciality Ink Systems.  Jon Harper-Smith described a new hybrid UV ink technology that they have been developing.

A trend in ink jet is towards higher resolution printheads, which tend to require low viscosity inks.  At the same time the range of applications for ink jet is growing, and with it the range of substrates that users wish to print on, requiring increased functionality of the ink which tends to increase the ink viscosity.

Conventional UV-curable inks consist of monomers, polymer/oligomers, and other additives.  Basically the functionality comes from the polymer/oligomer and the viscosity from the monomer. It is hard to balance these to achieve the required performance.  In addition all of the volume of the ink is left on the substrate surface, which can lead to undesirably thick layers for some applications.

Hybrid_dropsFSIS's hybrid inkThe new ink consists of solvent, to adjust the viscosity, and a special hybrid polymer to create the functionality.  After the drop reaches the surface, the solvent (which can be aqueous or a volatile organic solvent) evaporates to leave a smooth even film.  This is then cured using a UV light source as usual.

The ink is free of monomer, which is important for food industry applications. Because the image is flatter than normal UV-curable inks   the print quality is claimed to be higher, and this should suit consumer applications such as labels.

Alternative sources of thermal ink jet technology

With the apparent demise of Olivetti in Italy as a source of thermal ink jet heads, it was very interesting to learn of developments from Taiwan at the recent 21st European Ink Jet Conference run by IMI Europe in Lisbon, Portugal.  One of the speakers, Dr Daniel Lan, Managing Director of IUT, described their experience in developing thermal ink jet technology.  This began at ITRI in 1993 and R&D led to the formation of three manufacturing spin-offs.  IUT has manufactured 11 million ink jet printhead cartridges over 13 years, and since 2004 a major shareholder has been Asus.


Dr Lan explained that what they have been able to offer in the past has been restricted by patents, particularly those from HP.  Although they were convinced their technology worked around IP restrictions, the cost and timescales of challenging any legal action was prohibitive. But that may change next year when in late 2014 a significant number of fundamental patents, including matrix addressing, over-edge ink supply and nozzle densities greater than 300 dpi expire.

In addition IUT is developing some new printheads.  Special materials are being evaluated to allow solvent inks to be used.  And 2 and 4 inch wide heads are being developed.  These are intended for fixed array single pass applications.


SII Printek launches continuous flow printhead

SII Printek has been making ink jet printheads using the shared wall architecture for many years. More recently they have adapted these designs to use every other channel, so-called isolated channel technology.  This enables a large increase in drop frequency, for instance 35 kHz, and also aqueous-based inks, although the number of useable channels is halved.  It also led to being able to produce 3 different drop sizes per nozzle, giving a greyscale capability.  Although less well known than other ink jet printhead vendors, SII Printek has a broad customer base.

Isolated channels – many benefits

The latest development announced at the IMI 22nd Ink Jet Conference, Arizona February 1st 2013 is continuous circulation technology.  This is implemented in conjunction with the isolated channel technology.  Like other vendor’s printheads using continuous flow through the actuator chambers, the priming is fast, fresh ink is always passing the nozzles, and the temperature of the printhead becomes much more uniform, leading to increased stability.

SII Printek 512 JetFlow printhead

SII Printek ‘s product announcement is the 512 JetFlow printhead with 512 nozzles in 2 rows, a native resolution of 180 dpi, drop volumes variable between 20-150 pl, and drop frequencies in excess of 36 kHz.  Oil, solvent aqueous and UV inks can be used.  The new head is targeted at ceramic tile and textile printing, and digital fabrication.

This was one of the many new introductions at the IMI 22nd Ink Jet Conference, proceedings are available at www.imiconf.com

HP launches low-cost ink jet page array to compete with Memjet

We’ve already had one big new technology launch with Landa Digital, but 2013 looks like it goes down with 2.  Today HP has announced their latest ink jet technology development – a page-array printhead – together with the first printers and multi-function machines that will use them.  These machines are designed to be very competitive to  colour laser printers – twice the speed at half the cost.

The spec. is 70 pages per minute in “General Office quality mode”.  The printhead resolution across the page is 1,200 dpi and there are 42,240 nozzles.  HP’s pigmented inks are used which in conjunction with Colorlok paper should produce strong colours by “crashing” the colorant on the paper surface.

The printhead uses the HP SPT thermal ink jet technology with surface heaters, and generates 6 pl drops at 10 m/s.  If the printer is printing at 1,200 dpi along the page at 1,200 dpi then the drop frequency  is around 16 kHz.  The printhead is intended to last the life of the machine.  The printhead is made from 10 dies in a staggered overlapping architecture.

A big issue with page arrays is nozzle failures.  The new machines have a scanning optical drop detection system which uses a back scatter technique.  This operates while a test pattern is being ejected by the nozzles.  If nozzles have failed then other nozzles are substituted to hide the defect as much as possible and avoid visible banding.  Nozzle maintenance is via a cleaning web wrapped around a wiping roller.

So, a big surprise?  Well, not to the companies who subscribe to our Directions ink jet patent review service.  We’ve been reviewing patents relating to this technology over the past year so we could see what might be coming.  To find out more about Directions you can visit our new web site www.inkjetpatents.com.

You can find out more about HP’s technology from their White Paper.


Memjet’s new pricing model

Years ago I worked for an IT consultancy.  I had an ink jet background, which led to me being continuously baited by almost everyone else that laser printers were for businesses and ink jet was for kids to use at home.  Unfortunately some of that attitude still prevails with IT staff in many companies, both large and small.  Even today ink jet is still perceived as blocked nozzles, paper feeding problems, and continuously changing ink tanks.  As if!

Many vendors have tried to enter the networked printer market with ink jet devices.  True, sales of scanning head printers into businesses is growing, but they are increasingly competing against colour laser printers which are still getting cheaper each year.  Colour laser tends to be faster than ink jet, or it was until Memjet came along.

We’ve talked about Memjet’s 60 page per minute desk-top printer before.  It is actually a fairly simple device, particularly compared to colour laser printers, and much faster.  There is a single page-wide printhead, simple paper feed, four ink tanks and that’s it.  No need for the complexities and multiple consumables of colour laser printers.  The current generation of Memjet printers use aqueous dye-based inks, which means there is some sensitivity of image quality and optical density to the paper used.  But what so many people seem to forget is that to get the best out of any printer – including colour laser printers – you should choose an appropriate paper type.  It’s not like there is no choice!

So how will Memjet get their printers into the market? Retail outlets attract customers who print 6 pages per month, not 60 pages per minute.  The Memjet printer is well suited to SMEs who use dealers for business equipment.  In what Memjet hope is a “win-win” offering, customers will be offered an “all-in” pricing model.  For a fixed monthly payment ranging from £49-£149 per month you get all of your printing costs paid for – machine, inks – everything except the paper.  It doesn’t matter whether you print in black and white or colour, or what the area coverage is, the cost is the same.  What happens if you exceed your monthly page allowance?  Just like a mobile phone contract you are charged for the extra pages.  The printer hooks up to a phone line, so tells the dealer how many pages you have printed, and when the ink is running out.  For the customer they have fixed printing costs, for the dealer a regular income with consumables supply.

I’m the one on the right!

At the Memjet UK launch last week, slogan “Speed Wins”, guests could have their photo taken with Olympic Gold Medal cyclist Victoria Pendleton.  The photos were of course printed out on a Memjet printer, and I attach a print sample.  Thankfully there was a suitable delay between the camera flash and the print coming out so we could have a little chat.  Evidently the weight of carrying the medals around is taking it’s toll on her handbag.  The downside of being an Olympic athlete!

Lexmark Exits Ink Jet Business

Lexmark International announced on August 28. 2012 that it is exiting the ink jet printer business.  The company will continue to provide service, support and consumables for owners of its ink jet devices, but will discontinue R&D and manufacturing of ink jet devices, effective immediately.  This action is expected to save $95 million annually, while resulting in 1,700 layoffs, including 1,100 in its Philippines manufacturing facility and 550 at its Lexington, Kentucky headquarters.

This is not really surprising, as Lexmark has been attempting to sell the ink jet business for some time, and rumors of its exit abounded.  Still, it is a shock to see a major player exit the market after more than twenty years of participation.  The company had already abandoned the low end of the consumer market in 2008 and launched a line of improved business-class ink jets in 2009.  But like its rivals in ink jet, Lexmark was unable to convince businesses – especially corporations – to abandon laser technology for ink jet.  Ink jet printers made up only 5% of the company’s hardware revenue in 2012 to date.

Lexmark has also tried to find other applications for its ink jet technology, with very limited success.  It’s only major success came with OEM customer Dell, which most recently carried two Dell-branded Lexmark ink jet models.

It would seem to make sense for a printer company that lacks ink jet technology, such as Samsung or Seine (Ninestar of China), to acquire the Lexmark ink jet business, but with the consumer printer market in decline, apparently no one came forward.  Perhaps someone will acquire Lexmark’s portfolio of ink jet patents, which numbers about 1,000 and is for sale.

Just last week, Kodak indicated that it does not consider its consumer ink jet line a core business and is likely to sell or close it.  Kodak entered that market in 2007.

 Tom Ashley

Olivetti I-Jet may continue

As Mark Twain said on reading his obituary in the New York Journal, “the reports of my death are greatly exaggerated”.

So too for Olivetti’s ink jet operations, as further to my previous post about the liquidating Olivetti’s ink jet operations, it now appears that a group of industrial investors may be successful in keeping the ink jet business going.  This could be great news and we look forward to receiving more information soon.

Olivetti to end ink jet activities

Recently there came the sad news that Olivetti is liquidating its ink jet activities and seeking a buyer.  For some years the major printer product line has been fax machines, which is a declining market.  Of course it may be a surprise to many that Olivetti was even in the ink jet business.

Olivetti has a long history of ink jet technology.  Back in the 1980’s they developed some unique technologies, such as spark jet printing.  A spark caused a small amount of carbon to blast out of a nozzle in the end of a glass tube and form a mark on the substrate.  At that time even impact dot matrix printers were expensive, and the dry spark jet printer offered a low-cost solution for the growing computer market.

Then came liquid spark jet, which I don’t think was commercialised, and work with piezo technology.  But the big step forward came in 1990 when Olivetti showed their first bubble jet printer and joined the small club of desktop printer vendors.

However the Olivetti printer range was rarely seen outside of Europe, and a lot of sales were on the back of enterprise computer installations.  As the desktop printer market matured over the past decade, the lack of a worldwide sales base meant shipments were at a much lower level compared to their competitors with corresponding higher costs.  And sometimes the stylish and quirky Italian printer designs didn’t appeal to markets used to the more conservative looking offerings of HP and Japanese vendors.

Over the last 5 years Olivetti has been leveraging its low-cost thermal ink jet printhead technology for industrial applications.  They put together a credible set of printheads, mechanisms, modules and support systems to enable OEMs to develop products using a wide range of fluids.  Although piezo technology is the choice for most non-office applications it has a major drawback – high cost.  If you want to develop a product using ink jet technology that will sell for $1-2,000 it is very difficult to use anything other than thermal ink jet.

Olivetti i-Jet was making it easy for developers to work with cost-effective ink jet technology and the options for the future are considerably reduced.  Today the industry focus of ink jet developments is in ever faster and more productive machines, some of which run to multi-$M prices.  But there are hundreds of applications for printing where a small desk-top printer to do a specific task is needed.  These range from cake decorations, industrial printing and labelling of components, laboratory applications for medical and bio-sciences and so on.

The loss of Olivetti from the ink jet world would be not just the lost jobs of a few hundred people in North-West Italy, but the loss of lots of potential products that are being developed, or could have in the future.  Let’s hope a buyer comes forward.  In any case printhead production and support will be available from Olivetti for the rest of 2012.

If you have an interest in the liquidation, the contact is:

Francesco Forlenza
President and CEO
Olivetti I-Jet S.p.A