Detecting drops by measuring temperature of actuator chamber

US 2015/0321470 A1
Base, liquid discharge head, printing apparatus, and method for determining liquid discharge status
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha

With increased interest in high resolution page arrays, a major issue is maintaining print quality in the event of nozzle failures. Nozzles may fail for a variety of reasons — clogging due to debris or the ink viscosity increasing locally. Air bubbles may get trapped inside the actuator chamber, or the nozzle plate can become contaminated. Many of these failures can be overcome by performing some nozzle maintenance, while firing adjacent nozzles can compensate for more permanent failures.

While it is possible to regularly perform nozzle maintenance, this can be problematic with single pass page array printing. It is possible to spit drops onto the substrate either in between pages, or even in the images or background areas. but any more extensive maintenance, for instance cleaning the nozzle plate or purging ink from the nozzles, requires a halt to printing while the maintenance station and printhead are brought together.

Therefore it is becoming more desirable to know the status of all nozzles all of the time. With this knowledge nozzle maintenance can be carried out when required, rather than at regular intervals. In addition missing nozzle compensation algorithms can be used to maintain high print quality in the event of nozzle failures.

Popular techniques for determining missing nozzles are optical systems to either detect drops in flight or dots on the substrate after printing. Neither of these processes are easy to implement.


Here Canon explores building detection circuits under the heaters in each actuator chamber to detect partial or full drop generation failures. The detection circuits track temperature to determine if the drops are fired or not. In the figure heater 104 is generating a bubble within an actuator chamber. Underneath the heater is the temperature detection circuit 105 which records the temperature rise and decay. If no drop is generated then the ink remains in the chamber and the heater is completely uncovered by the bubble. If a drop is generated then some ink is left above the heater. These different conditions can be detected thermally.


On the left the temperature detection circuits are shown. These are underneath the heater, separated by an insulating film. There are two circuits, 105a under the centre of the heater and 105b under the periphery of the heater. Both circuits have serpentine-shaped tracks to increase the circuit length and therefore the resistance, making it easier to measure variations in voltage in the circuit. The connections to the circuits 110 are taken out by vias to tracks on a layer underneath the detection circuits, so they are less affected by the temperature changes.

The two circuits for each heater 105a and 105b are connected in a detection circuit. The outputs of differentiators 121 and 122 feed the comparator 123 resulting in Vout. If there is a drop discharge failure there is always a bubble on the surface of the actuator chamber above the heater, so the temperature gradually lowers. If a drop is generated then heat is removed from the chamber by the ink drop, so the temperature of the surface of the chamber decreases much more rapidly.


The graph shows the output voltage Vout from the comparator. If V2≥V1 then the output is high. If V1>V2 then the output is low. If no drop is generated then V1>V2 is always true so the output stays low. The time for the measurement Tk is chosen to be when the ink fragment left from the discharge should remain on the heater, and before the refill process.

The detection circuits are integrated with the silicon substrate of the printhead die. The detection process is very sensitive yet accurate. no complicated signal processing is required, so detection is very fast.